Below is a series of articles and official government publications concerning State Defense Forces.


  • National Guard Bureau – Chief National Guard Bureau Instruction in reference to 10-4 National Guard Interaction with State Defense Forces – Click Here to Read (Revised 2017)
  • Department of Defense Inspector General – Evaluation of Department of Defense Interaction with State Defense Forces – Click Here to Read – 2014
  • National Guard Bureau – National Guard Interaction with State Defense Forces – Click Here to Read – (Revised 2011)
  • Department of Defense House Armed Services Committee ReportClick Here to Read – 2005
  • National Guard Bureau – National Guard Bureau and State Defense Forces Interaction – Click Here to Read – 1987
  • United States of America – Title 32 § 109. Maintenance of other troops (State Defense Forces) – Click Here to Read – 1956


  • United States Army – New York Guard was born in World War I as the National Guard went to war – Click Here to Read – Source: US Army


  • Maine State Guard HistoryClick Here To Download
  • California State Military Reserve 203rd Infantry Battalion A Military History – Allen Bristow – Click Here to Read – 1991
  • World War 2: A Report to the Secretary of War On the Activities of the State GuardsClick Here to Read – 1941
  • The Provisional Brigade, the New York Guard on State Active Duty in WWIClick Here To Read


  • President Dwight D. Eisenhower 1955 letter to Congress concerning State Defense ForcesClick Here to Read

COMMANDERS BRIEFING (Interviews with SDF Commanding Officers)


  • The Minutemen of ’17Click Here to Read Book
    • Summary: An inside look at the missions, training & history of the New York Guard (State Defense Force), the 9th Coast Artillery Corps, & the Veteran Corps of Artillery during World War 1


  • The Militia You’ve Never Heard Of – Adam Freedman – Click Here to Read – 2016
  • State Defense Forces and their role in American Homeland Security – Jonathan R. Pohnel, Naval Postgraduate School – Click Here to Read – 2015
  • State defense forces: Challenges and opportunities of recruiting and retention – Deano L. McNeil – Click Here to Read – 2015
  • Tapping State Defense Forces to Decrease Defense Spending – WO1 Seth G. Stuck – Click Here to Read – 2012
  • Why More States Should Establish State Defense Forces – Jessica Zuckerman, Colonel Martin Hershkowitz, Brigadier General Frederic N. Smalkin, and James Jay Carafano, Ph.D. – Click Here to Read – 2012
  • The 21st Century Militia: State Defense Forces and Homeland Security – James Jay Carafano, Ph.D., and Jessica Zuckerman – Click Here to Read – 2010
  • A well regulated militia – James Jay Carafano – Click Here to Read – 2008
  • A State Guard/State Defense Force Advisory ReserveClick Here to Read – 2008
  • On the Need for a State Defense Force Noncommissioned Officer Council Click Here To Read – 2008
    • Ronald Scott, First Sergeant (MD)
    • Martin Hershkowitz, Colonel (MD)
  • Maryland Defense Force Joins National Guard for Major Homeland Security / Terrorist Response Exercise Click Here to Read – 2007
    • Lieutenant Colonel (MD) Robert Hastings
    • Major Kristine Henry, MDARNG
  • The Texas Medical Rangers in the Military Response of The Uniformed Medical Reserve Corps To Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita 2005: The New and Tested Role of The Medical Reserve Corps in the United States Click Here to Read – 2006
    • Colonel James L. Greenstone, Ed.D., J.D., DABECI, TXS
  • Summary of Available State Defense Force After Action Reports From Hurricanes Katrina and Rita Deployments – Colonel Martin Hershkowitz (MDDF-Ret) – Click Here to Read – 2006
  • Developing Vibrant State Defense Forces: A Successful Medical and Health Service ModelClick Here to Read – 2006
    • Colonel (MD) H. Wayne Nelson, Ph.D.
    • Colonel (MD) Robert Barish, M.D.
    • Brigadier General (MD) Frederic Smalkin, J.D.
    • Lieutenant Colonel (MD) James Doyle, M.D.
    • Colonel (MD) Martin Hershkowitz
  • The Impact of the Military Emergency Management Specialist (MEMS) Academy on State Defense Forces Click Here to Read – 2006
    • Command Sergeant Major Jeffrey A. Slotnick, WASG
  •  A Guide For Establishing a State Defense Force with a Homeland Security MissionClick Here to Read – 2005
    • Colonel Martin Hershkowitz, OCP, (MDDF-Ret)
    • Brigadier General Herbert O. Wardell, Jr., (DNG-Ret)
  • The Role of State Defense Forces in Homeland Security – Col. John R. Brinkerhoff – Click Here to Read – 2005
  • America’s State Defense Forces: An Historical Component of National Defense – Dr. Kent G. Sieg – Click Here to Read – 2005
  • State Defense Forces and Homeland Security – Arthur N. Tulak, Robert W. Kraft, and Don Silbaugh –  Click Here To Read – 2003
  • State Defense Forces: The Missing Link in National Security – George J. Stien – Click Here to Read – 1984
  • US Home Defense Forces StudyClick Here to Read – 1981
  • State Defense Forces: Past, Present and Future – Ronald Ray Armstrong, Alexander Philip Gisoldi – Click Here to Read – 1974



  • A Condensed History of California’s State Defense Forces – SSGT. D. Carl Ehlig – Click Here to Read – 2013
  • Maryland Defense Force 10th Medical Regiment: Past, Present and Future – Colonel (MD) Martin Hershkowitz, Colonel (MD) H. Wayne Nelson, Ph.D. – Click Here to Read – 2008
  • Homeland Defense: The Pennsylvania State Guard 1941-1953 – Lieutenant Colonel Brent C. Bankus, U.S. Army – Click Here to Read